Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Hikayat Enrique@panglima awang.

Masih kekal dalam ingatan saya waktu berumur 5 tahun...hobi saya menyelongkar semua buku2 & kitab2 mencari buku untuk dibaca kerana memang hobi saya gila membaca...
Salah satu buku yang sangat saya minati, gilai, telah saya baca tidak kurang dari 8 kali adalah buku Hikayat Panglima Awang. Tebal buku nya hampir 400+ muka surat.
Walau pun buku tersebut hampir hancur, namun ia tidaklah sehancur hati saya yang mengekplorasi watak2 dalam buku tersebut antara nya Panglima Awang @ Enrique, Panglima Hitam, Tun Fatimah, Tun Isap, Raja Mandaliar, Magellan & adik perempuan nya (Kekasih Panglima Awang) & lain2 watak....bukunya pun dah lama hilang, mana perginya wallahua'lambissawab....hanya Allah yang boleh jawab! Adalah hikmahnya.

Siang malam saya asyik menyelami, membaca, menghayati kisah yang begitu tragis, semangat juang mereka yang membara, kelebihan berkomunikasi, penguasaan pertuturan pelbagai bahasa, pakar pelayaran hebat, orang pertama yang mengelilingi dunia.....Itulah Panglima Awang @ Enrique @ 'Henry The Black ' & pelbagai gelaran lagi.

Kisah ini juga pernah di tulis oleh beberapa orang dalam surat khabar. -Tapi memang ianya tentu tidak lebih menarik minat melayu lebih dari ruangan penulisan tentang hiburan, gossip, penyanyi & lain2.?

Di bawah ini saya serta kan salah satu artikel dari blog penulis pencinta sejarah tanahair http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Sejarah-Melayu/messages/254?xm=1&m=e&l=1

Saudara Sabri Zain dari salasilah Kerajaan Nagara Kedah Asal.- Sejarah Melayu: yang menceritakan tentang Panglima Awang.


From: "sabrizain@..." Date: Mon Sep 9, 2002 8:48 am Subject: The Star: Magellan’s Malay connection
sabrizain Offline Send Email

From The Star, Malaysia
8 September 2002
Magellan’s Malay connection
ACCORDING to the National Maritime Museum in London, the first man to
circumnavigate the world wasn’t Ferdinand Magellan. Not because he
died halfway in the Philippines, but because the honour really belongs
to a dark-skinned Asian member of his crew. In fact, this man was a
Malay who had met Magellan much earlier while the Portuguese explorer
was out in the Far East in … the port of Malacca.
The museum’s website states: “In fact, the first person to sail around
the world was a Malaysian (sic), who had travelled back to Europe with
Magellan many years ago. Later he accompanied Magellan as an
interpreter on the circumnavigation.”
Of course, history, as we know it, was largely written by the
Europeans, so the feat of an Asian was relegated to footnote. On the
480th anniversary of that historic expedition, it is perhaps timely to
take stock of what really happened on that voyage.
This much is known: On Aug 10, 1519, funded by the Spanish king,
Charles I, Magellan, who was Portuguese, left Seville with a fleet of
five ships and a crew of 270 men to seek a westerly route to the Spice
Islands of South-East Asia.
He made it around South America and crossed the Pacific Ocean before
arriving in the islands now known as the Philippines. He died there
after getting involved in a tribal fight. His Spanish navigator named
Juan Sebastian del Cano took over and with the remaining crew returned
to Seville in 1522.
But the really interesting part is the role of a young man by the name
of Trapobana in the expedition. After picking up that tiny but amazing
nugget of information about a Malay on Magellan’s voyage from the
maritime museum, I trawled the Internet further and landed on a site
entitled Enrique
(http://members.tripod.com/firstcircumnavigator/enrique.htm). I can’t
vouch for the authenticity of the site nor the accuracy of the story
of the “Malay(si)an” but it makes fascinating reading and if true, is
really quite mind-blowing.
Before he set out on his historic expedition, Magellan had been to the
East, the “Malakas” or the much soughtafter Spice Islands Islands. He
spent seven years on the archipelago and was familiar with the
thriving port of Malacca. Already convinced the world was round, he
was determined to find a new and faster route to the islands to beat
out other rivals for the lucrative spice trade.
Meanwhile, Trapobana, who is believed to have been from an island in
the north-east of the Malay archipelago (now the Philippines), made
his way to Malacca. He is described in the website as “quick and
intelligent”. He not only became remarkably familiar with the region,
he learned the local languages, too.
Malacca was then the central city for spice trading as well as a
market for slaves. It was here that Magellan met Trapobana, and was
apparently struck by the young man’s intelligence, proficiency in the
local languages and familiarity with the area. Realising Trapobana’s
potential as an interpreter for his the ambitious expedition he was
planning, “Magellan … remembering Portuguese naval tradition that
allowed him to return with one captive slave, took the boy along…”.
Trapobana was renamed Enrique and journeyed west to Europe. He is said
to have played a vital role in helping Magellan convince Spain’s
Charles I to fund the circumnavigation. After a long and perilous
voyage – the diary of a crewmember, Antonio Pigafetta revealed, among
many horrors, how the crew ran out of food in the Pacific Ocean and
survived on mouldy biscuits, rats and stinking water for 23 days – the
expedition arrived in the Philippines , back to where Enrique had come
from. When Magellan was killed on the island of Cebu, Enrique, who was
deeply loyal to his master, decided not to continue the journey back
to Spain but remained on the island.
If this story is true – and it is tantalising since the National
Maritime Museum seems to agree so – Enrique, or Trapobana, was the
first man to circumnavigate the world, even though his was not a
direct or continuous route. He had left the Malay archipelago, headed
west for Spain with Magellan and then journeyed onwards to return from
the east to his homeland. That’s one big circle, also known as
circumnavigating.
So, technically, Datuk Azhar Mansor is the second Malay to sail round
the world although he is certainly the first Malaysian!
/\__/\
o o
={_!_}=
Sabri Zain
Send someone a postcard from Malaya's past!
Go to http://malaya.org.uk/
Reply Forward Messages in this Topic (1)
#256
From: "sabrizain@..." Date: Mon Sep 9, 2002 8:51 am Subject: Letter to the Editor: Magellan's Malay connection
sabrizain Offline Send Email

Below is a letter I wrote to the editor of the Star, in response to
their article yesterday on 'Magellan's Malay connection'
---------------------------------------------------------------------
To The Editor, The Star
I would like to bring to your attention the sidebar article that
appeared in the Lifestyle Section of 'The Star' on Sunday, 8th
September, 2002, with the title "Magellan's Malay connection". I would
like to applaud 'The Star' for highlighting to the Malaysian public the
little-known story of Enrique of Melaka - the first Malay and, some may
argue, perhaps even the first man to have ever sailed around the world.
However, for the sake of historical accuracy, I would like to point out
a number of factual errors in your writer's piece.
Your writer frequently refers to Enrique as Trapobana. This is a fatal
error that has been made by a number of writers in the past and is
caused by a misreading of a line in the diaries of Antonio Pigafetta
which describes Magellan's interpreter "who was of Zamatra, formerly
called Trapobana". Many have mistakenly interpreted that line to mean
the Enrique was from Sumatra and his former name was Trapobana. However,
anyone familiar with historical writings and documents of the late
medieval era would instantly recognise the name 'Trapobana' - it is
actually the classical name medieval geographers gave to Sumatra. The
name can be seen in a number of atlases of the late medieval era when
referring to Sumatra and there are references to 'Trapobana' as being
Sumatra in Godinho de Eredia's 'Description of Malacca' published in
1613 (see Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society Reprint 14,
1997). The line from Pigafetta's diary therefore refers to Trapobana as
Sumatra's former name, not Enrique's.
Your writer also refers to Enrique having come from "an island in the
northeast of the Malay archipelago (now the Philippines)". There is no
written evidence indicating that Enrique had any origins in or
connections with the Philippines. There are only two known records of
Enrique's origins - Pigafetta's diary and Magellan's last will and
testament - and these quite clearly state that he was from Sumatra and
was a native of the city of Melaka. The main argument behind the theory
that Enrique was from the Philippines (and, naturally, mostly from
Filipino writers) is that he could speak in the language of the people
inhabiting the islands around Cebu - Bisayan - and therefore must have
been from Cebu himself. However, there is a fatal flaw in this argument
- Pigafetta's diaries indicate that Enrique could not communicate at all
with the natives in his first encounters with them. It was only when he
spoke with royalty - in this case, their king - or with traders that
they suddenly found a common language among them. This is certainly not
surprising - Malay was, by then, the 'lingua franca' of the whole
Archipelago, and the official language of international diplomacy and
trade for the whole region. All references to Enrique in Pigafetta's
chronicle have him speaking with kings, chiefs or traders - rather than
the common folk who may not have known the international language of
Malay.
There are also a number of other factual inaccuracies in the piece, a
few of which I shall only briefly outline below:
i) Magellan did not set out on his expedition from Seville but from the
port of Sanlucar de Barrameda. Seville is actually nearly 80 km from the
sea.
ii) The 'Malakkas' your writer refers to is actually the 'Moluccas'.
iii) Magellan did not spend seven years in the Malay archipelago. He
first came to the archipelago in 1509, then participated in the capture
of Melaka in 1511 and returned to Lisbon with Enrique in 1512.
If your readers would like further information on and insights into this
subject, may I take the liberty of drawing your attention to an essay I
had written, "Enrique of Melaka: Was the first man to sail around the
world a Malay?" (August 31, 2002) . You will be able to find this on my
'Sejarah Melayu' website at the following address:
http://www.sabrizain.demon.co.uk/malaya/port3.htm
May I also suggest the following references:
- Pigafetta, Antonio, journal, quoted in Skelton, R.A., 'Magellan's
Voyage--A narrative Account of the First Circumnavigation', New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1969
- Zweig, S. Magellan. 'Der Mann und seine Tat', Wien-Leipzig-Z├╝rich,
1937 and Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1983
- Pintado, M J, 'Portuguese Documents On Melaka', National Archives of
Malaysia, 1993.
- Godinho de Eredia, 'Description of Malacca' , Malaysian Branch of the
Royal Asiatic Society Reprint 14, 1997
Thank you for your kind attention.
Sabri Zain

1 comment:

  1. Panglima Awang tidak dikenal di Indonesia, termasuk saya sendiri. Karena saya peminat sejarah Nusantara, Panglima Awang bagi saya sosok yang hebat - yang hanya dikenal di Malaysia. Saya akan menuliskannya di blog saya, yaitu di http://rizalbustami.blospot.com supaya masyarakat Indonesia mengetahuinya.
    Terimakasih,Rizal Bustami,Bogor,Indonesia

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